A Look into Inclusion and Special Education (SPED) Policies in the Philippines (2023)

The Story of Inclusion

Inclusion has been the byword for education these days. I was exposed with the word sometime in 2017 when I became aware of the United Nations Sustainable Goals (UN SDGs), specifically Goal no. 4 which states “Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.” I realized, I kept using the word, assuming I know what inclusion meant. After reading all the articles and legal references, I obtained a valuable insight on what inclusionreally meant.

The inclusive education framework was not a new concept.The “word” inclusion was the focus of the 1994 Salamanca Statement which was signed by the representatives of 92 governmentsand 25 international organizations. The statement affirmed education for all which promoted inclusion, particularly for children with special educational needs (UNESCO SALAMANCA STATEMENT, iii). Meanwhile, on May 2015, the World Education Forum held at Incheon, Korea spearheaded by UNESCO drafted the Education 2030 Incheon Declaration which reiterated SDG #4 — Inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning for all (UNESCO Education 2030).

Transitioning to Inclusive education

In the Philippines, the recent response of the government to inclusion was the issuance of Dept. Order (DO) 21, series of 2019 by the Department of Education (DepEd) Secretary Leonor Briones. The DO detailed the Policy Guidelines on the K-12 Basic Education Program. Part of the policy statement on Inclusive Education was featured in item no. 16 which states “Inclusive education is the core principle of the K to 12 Basic Education Program. This promotes the right of every Filipino to quality, equitable, culture based and complete education. Through inclusive education, all Filipinos will realize their full potential and contribute meaningfully to building the nation.” There was also a separate Annex (5) for the Inclusive Education Policy Framework.

The Salamanca Statement also provided a guiding principle on the inclusion framework — “school should accommodate children regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional, linguistic or other conditions. This should include disabled and gifted children, street and working children, children from remote or nomadic populations, children from linguistic ethnic or cultural minorities and children from other disadvantage or marginalized area or group.” It was also mentioned that “children and youth with special educational needs should be included in the educational arrangements made for the majority of the children” (UNESCO Salamanca Statement).

Special education was part of the “inclusion” mandate of the Salamanca Statement. The Philippines had come a long way in institutionalizing policies on Special Education (SPED) in support of an inclusive and equitable education. Although our journey cannot be compared to developed countries such as US and Canada, the legislative policies for people with disabilities were in place. Table 1 shows the different legal framework of SPED in the Philippines, which was a testament that people with disabilities were recognized as an equally important contributor for nation development.

A Look into Inclusion and Special Education (SPED) Policies in the Philippines (1)

The latest legislature in the 18th Congress of the Philippines on Special Education was Senate Bill (SB)1907 dated 2020 November 09, entitled “An Act Instituting Services and Program for Learners with Disabilities in Support of Inclusive Education, Establishing Inclusive Learning Resource Centers of Learners with Disabilities in all Municipalities and Cities, providing for Standards, Appropriating Funds Therefor, and for other Purposes” or calledthe “Instituting Services and Programs for Learners with Disabilities in Support of “Inclusive Education Act.” The bill consolidated all previous SB 55, 69, 329, 338, 354, 540, 804 and 1150 that were related to Children and Youth with Special Needs (CYSN) and inclusive education. In the lower House of Representatives, House Bill (HB) 9104, authored by Quezon City Representative Alfred Vargas III, was also approved on May 2019 (Cruz,M. 2019). In both house bills, special education in support of inclusion was evidently emerging.

(Video) Inclusive Education in the Philippines (Definition, Policies, and Laws)

In the new Senate Bill 1907, the following can be noted as new and distinct features specific to Learners with Disabilities which were not covered by RA7277 or the Magna Carta for Persons with Disabilities:

  1. Establishing Inclusive Learning Resource Center of Learners with Disability in their inclusion in the general education system (Section 3-c).
  2. Further develop a system for identification, referral and intervention for learner with disabilities (Section 3-f).
  3. To identify, through a Child Find System, learners with disability who are not receiving early and basic education services (Section 3-g)
  4. To institutionalized the development, implementation, and review of the individualized education plan for the quality education of the learners with disability (Section 3-h)
  5. To ensure the inclusion of the Filipino Sign Language as the First Language (L1) or mother tongue of the deaf learners under RA 10533 (Section 3-n)
  6. Definition of Related Services (Section 4 - Definition of Terms)
  7. Procedural Safeguards (Section 23)
  8. Creation of the Bureau of Inclusive Education as Implementing Bureau (Section 12)
  9. Creation of Advisory Council for Education of Learners with Disabilities (Section 13)
  10. Learners with Disability Information System (Section 14)

The Challenges in the Transition

The Bureau of Learning Delivery, Student Inclusion Division conducted a ‘Training of School Heads on Inclusive Education in the New Normal” last 2020 November 25 to 27. I was fortunate to watch the FB live streaming and got insights from Dr. Susanne B. Carington, a professor from Queensland University Technology, Australia. She discussed “Global Preparation and Practices on Inclusive Education”. In her presentation, she explained the difference between inclusive education and special education. She further stressed that inclusion is not exclusion and at the same time not integration. Then I understood from there that one of the challenges in embracing inclusion came from such confusion. People had different understanding between inclusive education and special education (Carington, 2020). This was manifested on the research conducted for private education in Quezon City. The respondents (mostly teachers) said that they were practicing inclusive education however limited in their understanding of what inclusion was. They were also not confident if what they were doing was at par with the best practices as far as inclusion was concerned (Muega, M. 2019).

Another challenge that Dr. Carington mentioned was lack of resources and infrastructure. This can be felt by unavailability of services, special education teachers, classrooms, and to some extent more caseloads for existing SPED teachers (Berry, A. & Gravelle, M. 2013).Another example was the unavailability of extensive and updated statistics of children with special needs (Labraque, C, 2018).Congruent to the lack of resources, another challenge was the preparation of teachers and school leaders (Carington, 2020). General education teachers lack training on inclusive education. To address this challenges, current teachers should be equipped with the necessary skills and appropriation of sufficient budget to fund the endeavor (Muega, M. 2019). The pains in education for special education was exponentially felt during the pandemic as there were children with special needs who dropped out due to limited facilities and lack of teachers (Delizo, M. 2010).

Dr. Carington (2020) also mentioned the importance of local and cultural context. For instance, in one of the studies, it was affirmed that the Philippine K-curriculum has integrated the concepts and expression of inclusion — the highest of which was self expression (23)%, followed by communication (19,23%), responsibility (10.3%) and participation & cooperation (7.7%). These were 4 of the 16 constructs that were directly related to the K-curriculum. However, the scope of her study did not include the analysis on how these constructs were integrated in the full K-12 program (Raguindin, P. 2020). Herein lies another challenge. We know inclusion was integrated in the K-12 program but we do not know how was this being implemented up to the school level.

Much of the conundrum in exclusive education was that learners with disabilities were mixed in general education classrooms (O’Leary, W. 2019; E-Net Philippines). Some private schools in Quezon City were found to be implementing inclusion, however, the question was if such schools were deploying it properly and with ease (Muega, M, 2019). Inclusive education practices requires responsibilities that concerns a lot of paperwork (Gravelle, M. 2013), hence, would need for teachers to “exert extra efforts” (Muega, M. 2019).

Another perceived challenge was the “role confusion in inclusionary setting” and “professional isolation”. Teachers felt that they do not have enough support coming from the general education teachers, parents and administrators. The SPED teachersfelt that educating students with disabilities became their sole responsibility (Berry, A. & Gravelle, M. 2013). It was also mentioned that the role of the general education teacher and the SPED teacher were blurring (O’Leary, W. 2019). If this will not be resolved, then inclusion might be viewed as a burden rather than a solution that will catapult Philippine education to the 21st century.

A Model for Transformation


In the same webinar hosted by DepEd, Dr. Carrington (2020) recognized the Canadian province of New Brunswick for successfully implementing a comprehensive system of inclusive education. In my search for references on the journey of Brunswick, I found a pamphlet written by Gordon L. Porter and David Towell, entitled “Advancing Inclusive Education: Keys to Transformational Change in Public Education.”

The transformation in Brunswick did not happen overnight. It took the country years of collaboration among all the stakeholders to implement inclusive education. (Porter, G. & Towell, D. 2017). Both authors enumerated 5 important elements that impacted the transformation in New Brunswick:

  1. Transformational Change Matrix which details the 10 keys to transformation
  2. Educational System Transformation in New Brunswick which discusses the 3 major factors that propelled the country to transform starting in 1970.
  3. Government Level Priorities
  4. School District Level Priorities
  5. School & Class Level Priorities

The 10 keys to Transformation recommended by Porter and Towell (2017) that should be implemented at the state, district, school and classroom level were: Educating for Life; Promoting Inclusion; Encouraging Transformational Leadership; Developing Partnership; Investing in equity; Tackling barriers to participation; Strengthening inclusive pedagogy; Prioritizing professional development; Learning from Experience, and; Plotting the journey to inclusion.

Relevant and Better Learning Spaces

As a mother with a son diagnosed with autism spectrum and learning disability, I hope that there will be more relevant and better learning spaces for kids with disabilities. A place where relevant learning means transforming, discovering and enhancing the diverse human talents of an individual. Better learning spaces in the Philippines that provides children with disabilities equitable attention and care, structure, support, resources and personalized instructions/plans.

However, relevant and better learning spaces will only be possible if all stakeholders will collaborate, spearheaded by the Department of Education and Commission on Higher Education. A strong support from the law makers in drafting and approving bills relevant to special education will make a big impact for students, parents, teachers and school administrators to support said space.

Henceforth, the current laws and polices on special education need to be revisited. The exiting law — RA 7277 — fell short, especially if we use the Disability Education Act (IDEA) Principles (Lee) as a standard reference (See Table 2). Something must be done to uphold the rights of the children including learners with disability, as stipulated in the 1987 Constitution Article XIV, “Section 1. The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels, and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.”

A Look into Inclusion and Special Education (SPED) Policies in the Philippines (2)


The IDEA has institutionalized referral, evaluation and assessment of children with disabilities. This way, proper kids with learning disabilities, autism, ADHD,intellectual disability, and etc. will be properly diagnosed and managed. IDEA has also defined the 13 categories of disabilities (Saleh) which even the new SB 1907 still lack unless it will be included in the Implementing Rules and Regulation (IRR) once approved. The Child Find provision, which was part of the IDEA, was also not part of RA 7277. Said provision requires the state and schools to identify, locate and evaluate all children with disabilities (IDEA).

While it was true that inclusion and special education has different meaning, both are interrelated and complement one another. A true inclusive education gives equitable opportunity for everyone including children with disabilities. We need lawmakers, school leaders, teachers, parents, active and concerned citizens and other relevant groups in the society to work together to ensure that Philippines will be able to implement comprehensive inclusive education.

The success of any laws approved in legislature or policies mandated by the national government were dependent on governance, leadership, mindful implementation of the programs, transformation of consciousness, capability building, and collaboration of all stakeholders. Brunswick Canada has laid out and shared their journey. We can learn, be guided with their experience and put it into the Philippine context.


The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education. Retrieved from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000098427

Education 2030. Incheon Declaration and Framework for Action. Retrieved from http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/education-2030-incheon-framework-for-action-implementation-of-sdg4-2016-en_2.pdf

SBN-1907: Instituting Services and Programs for Learners with Disabilities in Support of Inclusive Education. Retrieved from http://legacy.senate.gov.ph/lis/leg_sys.aspx?congress=18&type=bill&p=1

Cruz, M. (2019) “Bill on kids with special needs passes.” Manila Standard. Retrieved from https://manilastandard.net/news/national/296130/bill-on-kids-with-special-needs-passes.html

(Video) History of Special Education in the Philippines

Carrington, S. (2020) “Global Perspective and Practices on Inclusive Education”. Taken from a video Streaming on Training of School Heads on Inclusive Education in the New Normal (2020). Bureau of Learning Delivery FB Page

DepED DO 21 series of 2019. Policy Guidelines on K-12 Basic Education Program. Retrieved from https://www.deped.gov.ph/2019/08/22/august-22-2019-do-021-s-2019-policy-guidelines-on-the-k-to-12-basic-education-program/

Muega, Michael. (2019). Inclusive Education in the Philippines: Through the Eyes of Teachers, Administrators, and Parents of Children with Special Needs.

Berry, A. and Gravelle, M. (2013) The Benefits and Challenges of SPED Positions in Rural Setting: Listening to the Teachers

Raguindin, P (2020) Integrating Concepts and Expressions of Inclusion in the K-Curriculum: The Case of the Philippines. European Journal of Education Research

E-Net Position Paper (2020). Statement from Allied Members of the Coalition for Education of Children and Youth with Disabilities. Retrieved from https://enetphil.org/2020/07/03/disability-sectors-comments-and-recommendations-on-the-various-bills-on-inclusive-education-for-children-and-youth-with-special-needs-filed-in-the-senate-and-the-house-of-representatives/

Labraque, C. (2018) “Children with Special Education Needs in Public Elementary Schools of Catbalogan City, Philippines.” Journal of Academic Research pp 25-37.

O’Leary, W. (2019) “5 Current Trending Issues in SPED.” Edmentum Blog. Retrieved from https://blog.edmentum.com/five-current-trending-issues-special-education


Lee, A. “Individual with Disability Education Act (IDEA): What You Need to Know.” Retrieved from https://www.understood.org/en/school-learning/your-childs-rights/basics-about-childs-rights/individuals-with-disabilities-education-act-idea-what-you-need-to-know

Saleh, M. “Your Child’s Rights: 6 Principles of IDEA.” Retrieved from https://www.smartkidswithld.org/getting-help/know-your-childs-rights/your-childs-rights-6-principles-of-idea/

The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/constitutions/1987-constitution/


What are the inclusion education policies in the Philippines? ›

Republic Act (RA) 11650, inked by Duterte on March 11, provides that no learner shall be denied admission based on their disability. The new law provides that all schools, whether public or private, shall ensure equitable access to quality education to every learner with disability.

What is the policy of special and inclusive education? ›

Inclusion: All children should have the opportunity to learn together, should have equal access to the general education system, and should receive individual accommodation where needed based on disability or other difference.

How important is special and inclusive education in the Philippines? ›

There are many reasons why inclusive education is important. Firstly, it ensures that all students have an opportunity to learn and grow in a safe and supportive environment. Secondly, it prepares students for the real world by teaching them how to work with people of all abilities.

What is the purpose of special and inclusive education in the lives of the students? ›

Inclusive systems provide a better quality education for all children and are instrumental in changing discriminatory attitudes. Schools provide the context for a child's first relationship with the world outside their families, enabling the development of social relationships and interactions.

What is the importance of adopting the inclusive education policy framework for basic education? ›

This policy framework is being adopted to provide an overall framework of implementation for programs that directly promote Inclusive Education and to ensure that every aspect of the K to 12 curriculum support system, across the governance levels of the Department, is responsive to the needs and demands of diverse ...

What is the main purpose of an inclusion policy? ›

Inclusion refers to ensuring that current, future and potential employees and members have equality of opportunity in the organisation without any barriers or obstacles as a result of their race, colour, physical features, sex, sexual preference, gender identity, lawful sexual activity, age, physical or mental ...

What is the benefits of inclusive education for students with disabilities and for without disabilities? ›

Inclusive education seeks to create a culture of acceptance and understanding by bringing together all students, regardless of ability, in one learning environment. By doing so, inclusive education helps to break down the barriers that often exist between students with and without disabilities.

What is the importance of special education to inclusive education? ›

The most important mission of special education is to provide students with special needs with development opportunities and a learning process that will improve the quality of their life. This can only be done through the cooperation of schools and government institutions that provide free appropriate education.

What are the benefits of inclusion in special education? ›

Benefits of Inclusion for Students With Disabilities
  • Friendships.
  • Increased social initiations, relationships and networks.
  • Peer role models for academic, social and behavior skills.
  • Increased achievement of IEP goals.
  • Greater access to the general curriculum.
  • Enhanced skill acquisition and generalization.

Is inclusive education beneficial for both students with and without special needs? ›

Studies show that inclusion is beneficial for all students — not just for those who get special education services. In fact, research shows that inclusive education has positive short-term and long-term effects for all students. Kids with special education needs who are in inclusive classes are absent less often.

What is special education in your own words essay? ›

Definition Of Special Education

"It takes a special kind of person to care for a child with special needs" wrong, actually a child with special needs will inspire you to be a special kind of person. Special education refers to a range of social services provided mostly by public schools for people with disabilities.

What is inclusive education and its basis and policies that supports it? ›

Inclusive education is when all students, regardless of any challenges they may have, are placed in age-appropriate general education classes that are in their own neighborhood schools to receive high-quality instruction, interventions, and supports that enable them to meet success in the core curriculum (Bui, Quirk, ...

How can teachers effectively implement inclusive education in practice? ›

All students have an equal right to education. Classrooms should be made up of students with mixed abilities. No children should be separated from main groups based on discrimination. Appropriate activities should be planned and each student's personal needs taken into consideration.

How do you implement inclusive education policy? ›

In summary, key factors in inclusive education implementation include school and classroom level implementation such as school reviews and plans; training and supporting all teachers in inclusive practices, not just 'specialised' ones; and supporting school leadership to enact an inclusive vision for their schools.

What is inclusion '? Why is it important explain it with examples? ›

Inclusion is seen as a universal human right. The aim of inclusion is to embrace all people irrespective of race, gender, disability, medical or other need. It is about giving equal access and opportunities and getting rid of discrimination and intolerance (removal of barriers). It affects all aspects of public life.

What is the importance of inclusion for development? ›

Social inclusion is important for a person's dignity, security and opportunity to lead a better life. It has been proven over and over again how important it is to support individuals to feel connected and valued within society and address any form of social exclusion people are experiencing every day.

Why is it important that students with disabilities have access to the general education curriculum? ›

The general education curriculum follows specific content standards and subject matter, and students with disabilities have the right to access the same standards. Through accessing this curriculum, students with disabilities move towards learning the same critical information and abilities taught to all students.

What are the benefits of successful inclusion to children with and without disabilities? ›

Students without disabilities progress in social cognition and develop a greater understanding and acceptance of students with disabilities and diversity as a whole, as a result of experiencing inclusive programming. Students without disabilities also experience increased self-esteem and improved self-concept.

What is your opinion about inclusion explain your answer? ›

Inclusion is about making sure that the marginalised members of society (for example, those with disabilities or special needs, and minority groups) are not only told they are included but also feel like they are. To me, inclusion goes further than telling someone: “your differences are appreciated”.

What are the benefits of inclusive education for students with disabilities based on the given components of inclusive and special education? ›

Inclusive education has many benefits for the students. Instructional time with non-disabled peers helps the learners to learn strategies taught by the teacher. Teachers bring in different ways to teach a lesson for disabled students and non-disabled students. All the students in the classroom benefit from this.

Why is inclusion so important for individuals with and without learning disabilities? ›

Inclusion gives children an opportunity to build and maintain friendships, finding things that they have in common with their classmates along the way. This can help a child to learn that difference is normal.

How can schools create inclusive education for students with physical disabilities as well as for intellectual disability? ›

Students with disabilities should receive reasonable accommodations within the classroom. Schools should address the academic, social, and life skills needs of each student. If needed, alternative learning methods should be used, such as braille instruction or alternative communication devices.

How do you make your classroom an inclusive learning environment Why is it important to create an inclusive learning environment? ›

5 inclusivity practises to consider

Create a supportive, respectful environment: promote diversity and fairness. Have high expectations of all your students. Research shows that students respond better when they feel that their teacher has faith in their abilities and is not focusing on their inabilities.

What is the most important thing to learn in special education? ›

The key to inclusive special education programs is understanding and accepting students for who they are. This means not just helping them overcome their weaknesses but assisting them in finding and developing their talents too.

What is the main purpose of special education? ›

Special education is defined as an 'education designed to facilitate the learning of individuals who, for a wide variety of reasons, require additional support and adaptive pedagogical methods in order to participate and meet learning objectives in an educational programme' (UIS-UNESCO, n.d.).

What is the importance of special education in our society? ›

It helps every student with disabilities to have a chance to learn and showcase their own talent and intelligence. Without these students, Special Education wouldn't be an organization or community who are willing to help these students with disabilities to learn and to attain their needs.

What policy of inclusion is adopted in the Philippines? ›

In striving to educate as many children as possible and with limited funds to build a sep- arate special education infrastructure to cater to the needs of children with disabilities, inclusive education was officially adopted in 1997 by the Department of Education in the Philippines as a viable educational alternative.

Which public policy supports the inclusive education in the Philippines? ›

Save the Children Philippines warmly welcomes a significant milestone for children with and without disabilities in the Philippines as Republic Act 11650 – An Act Instituting a Policy of Inclusion and Services for Learners with Disabilities in Support of Inclusive Education, was signed into law on March 11, 2022.

What are inclusion policies in schools? ›

This policy describes the way we meet the needs of children who experience barriers to their learning, which may relate to sensory or physical impairment, learning difficulties or emotional or social development, or may relate to factors in their environment, including the learning environment they experience in school ...

What is K to 12 inclusion policy in the Philippines? ›

The K to 12 Program covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, ...

How does the policy of inclusion benefit children with disabilities? ›

Inclusive classrooms teach all students about the importance of diversity and acceptance. Evidence also indicates that students with and without disabilities who are educated in inclusive classrooms have better academic outcomes than students who are educated in noninclusive classrooms.

What are the ways in which the Philippines can improve its implementation of inclusive education? ›

they journeyed in the Philippines implementation of inclusive education.
urged higher education institutions to:
  • Admit students with special needs.
  • Include SPED programs for teacher training institutions.
  • Provide/modified accessible facilities and equipment for students with special needs.
3 Apr 2021

Why are policies and guidelines in special education important? ›

Besides, policies are also important because they help a school establish model operating procedures and create standards of quality for learning and safety, as well as expectations and accountability.

Why is inclusive education needs to be implemented in Philippine education? ›

Inclusive education aims to mainstream students with special needs in a flexible learning environment for acquiring quality education that optimises their potential for holistic development.

What is the purpose of special education and why is it important? ›

It helps every student with disabilities to have a chance to learn and showcase their own talent and intelligence. Without these students, Special Education wouldn't be an organization or community who are willing to help these students with disabilities to learn and to attain their needs.

Why is it important to promote inclusion in schools? ›

They ensure that children of different backgrounds and with special needs can be successfully included and encouraged to participate with the other children in your school. 'High expectations enable children to achieve the best possible outcomes in both their academic achievement and their wellbeing.

What are the benefits of inclusion in education? ›

Benefits of Inclusion for Students With Disabilities
  • Friendships.
  • Increased social initiations, relationships and networks.
  • Peer role models for academic, social and behavior skills.
  • Increased achievement of IEP goals.
  • Greater access to the general curriculum.
  • Enhanced skill acquisition and generalization.

What is the status of special education programs in the Philippines 2022? ›

"Please be informed that as of June 30, 2022, the SPED program under the FY 2022 GAA has an obligation rate of 1.13%, or only P6. 35 million out of P560. 202 million allocation. This funding provision will still be valid until December 31, 2023," it added.

What is the goal and objectives of special education in the Philippines? ›

Goals and Objectives

Special education shall aim to develop the maximum potential of the child with special needs to enable him to become self-reliant and shall be geared towards providing him with the opportunities for a full and happy life.

What is RA 10533 How can this law contribute to inclusive education? ›

Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 [R.A No. 10533]. Abstract/Citation: The State shall establish, maintain and support a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people, the country and society-at-large.


1. History of Special Education (in the world and in the Philippines)
(Professor Star)
2. Differentiate Special Education, Inclusion and Mainstreaming.
(Myca N.)
3. Inclusive Education in the Philippines
(JL Tayam)
4. GROUP 6 (FSIE) History of Special Education in the Philippines
(Never stop yourself to learn)
5. What is Special Education in the Philippines?
(Racel Joie Hortizuela)
6. Ed 124 FSIEd Unit 2 Part A Psychological Bases of Special & Inclusive Education
(Sir Fitz TV)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Rev. Porsche Oberbrunner

Last Updated: 25/04/2023

Views: 6255

Rating: 4.2 / 5 (73 voted)

Reviews: 80% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Rev. Porsche Oberbrunner

Birthday: 1994-06-25

Address: Suite 153 582 Lubowitz Walks, Port Alfredoborough, IN 72879-2838

Phone: +128413562823324

Job: IT Strategist

Hobby: Video gaming, Basketball, Web surfing, Book restoration, Jogging, Shooting, Fishing

Introduction: My name is Rev. Porsche Oberbrunner, I am a zany, graceful, talented, witty, determined, shiny, enchanting person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.